CHANGE LEADERSHIP: THE MISSING CATALYST FOR BUILDING A PROVATE SECTOR IN RUSSIA
Eric Van Genderen
Issue 31 (Vol. 16, No. 1), June 2006, pp. 3-20.
In August 1998, Russia was thrown into a financial crisis. Sachs, the Harvard economist, declared that Russia lacked the leadership necessary to successfully make the transition to a market-based economy. Whilst the Soviet leadership model prevented change, research has indicated that the transformational style of leadership adds significantly to the performance of Russian organizations. The Leadership Dimensions Questionnaire (LDQ) is a unique psychometric measurement instrument that assesses managers¡¦ emotional intelligence (EQ), cognitive competences (IQ), and managerial competences (MQ). Leading Western concepts/management tools, like the LDQ, could be used to foster the change leaders capable of developing a healthy private sector.
WINDS OF CHANGE: THE END OF THE GAMING MONOPOLY AND THE EVOLUTION OF CASINO GAMBLERS PROFILE IN MACAU SAR, SOUTH CHINA, 2003-2004
Issue 31 (Vol. 16, No. 1), June 2006, pp. 21-40.
This article presents a two point evolution of a three-dimensional profile of the casino gamblers in Macau SAR, PR China. The two points analysed were 2003, when the new licenses of the gaming concessions had already been approved but the monopoly was still a matter of fact since the casinos of the new operators were not yet open for business and in 2004 some months after the opening of Sands, the first of the new casinos commencing operations. The studies are presented independently and compared in terms of evolution. An analysis is undertaken taking into consideration the profile of the American casino gambler, and commented within the context of the end of the monopoly and the liberalisation of the casino gaming market in Macau. The evolution of several territory indicators is discussed as the liberalisation of the gaming market and the newly implemented individual frequent travelling visa policy of China produced extraordinary increases on several indicators leading to the emergence of important challenges in terms of tourism destination management.
UNDERSTANDING THE NATURE OF COMMITMENT IN GRASSROOTS DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS
Sow Hup Chan
Issue 31 (Vol. 16, No. 1), June 2006, pp. 41-52.
Organizational communication scholars had paid little attention on how commitment can be sustained among members of grassroots human development organizations. This paper examines members¡¦ commitment in such an organization. The objective of the paper is to identify the level of commitment and to explore how members influence and control each other in the development organization.
Members of Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia (AIM) were interviewed to gain a deeper understanding of the dynamics of members' communication. The approach used in the study yields interesting insights into member's commitment in this grassroots organization. The study suggests that the members¡¦ commitment towards the organization is closely related to how they value the group and interpersonal relationship. The results also suggest that grassroots human development organizations will succeed in its effort when their members are committed.
The findings contribute to the conceptual understanding of the subject. Areas for future research were included.
THE INFLUENCE OF REFERENCE GROUP ON PURCHASE DECISION: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN CHINA
Matthew, Tingchi Li, Sanjay Nadkarni & Simon Yuen Sheung Man
Issue 31 (Vol. 16, No. 1), June 2006, pp. 53-66.
China has undisputedly emerged as an economic powerhouse with a burgeoning middle class, thereby making it a booming market of FMCG and service industries. However, little is known in terms of the purchasing patterns and consumer behavior against this backdrop of China¡¦s economic assent. In reference to this context, this study investigates two types of reference group influence on purchase decisions across four product categories. Indeed, there are other factors that predispose consumers to be influenced by reference group, such as consumer characteristics, group characteristics and situation. The findings of this study suggest that the reference group has stronger informational influence on public luxury purchase decision than on public necessity, private luxury and private necessity purchase decision. Moreover, informational influences of reference group on the four types of product are all stronger than normative influence.
COMMENTARIES AND BOOK REVIEWS
A COMMENTARY ON 'CHINA AND THE GLOBAL BUSINESS REVOLUTION'
Issue 31 (Vol. 16, No. 1), June 2006, pp. 67-74.
Since China¡¦s economic reforms began in the 1970s, it has pursued a somewhat cautious and experimental approach to industrial policy. Supporters of this approach have argued that it is necessary to pursue a ¡¥strategic¡¦ integration into the world economy. In this approach, China has attempted to emulate the successes of its East Asian neighbours in supporting the growth of a series of globally powerful companies. Japan in particular was successful in its industrial policies of the 1950s through to the 1970s in creating a fleet of globally competitive companies.
Yet during the period of China¡¦s reforms there has been a struggle between the neo-classical, free-market position and the experimental development position. Supporters of the former have argued for the benefits of China¡¦s rapid integration with the world economy. At the same time, the world economy has experienced a global business revolution, presenting an ever greater challenge to China¡¦s attempt to catch up at the level of the large firm. Since China¡¦s accession to the WTO in 2001, this is only the more so.
China and the Global Business Revolution addresses the interaction between China¡¦s internal system restructuring in its large enterprises and the global business revolution. It communicates the challenges that China has faced as a ¡¥late-comer¡¦ country in an epoch of history which Nolan claims eclipses even the Industrial Revolution. It raises questions not only regarding the role of the state in China¡¦s economy, but the path it should take in its road to development.
Interviews with the Gurus
By Jorge Nascimento Ferreira
Jorge Nascimento Ferreira, editor of the renowned on-line management resource web page gurusonline.tv, brings to EAJM the latest from the management gurus
MR MEGATRENDS RESETS PICTURES OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMY AND THE TECH REVOLUTION
Issue 31 (Vol. 16, No. 1), pp. 75-77.
Interview with John Naisbitt
'¡¥We are in a time of digesting, extending and perfecting the technological and geopolitical breakthroughs we've seen in the last period of the 20th Century: the Internet, biotech, nanotech, the rise of the new China. We are in a period of incremental evolutionary change. We will spend the next half century absorbing and upgrading the big revolutionary innovations. Period. There's no next big thing anytime soon¡¦, says John Naisbitt, 77, one of the most famous American futurists. This sounds unpleasant for tech pundits and hype ¡¥spin doctors¡¦ in search of the ¡¥next big thing¡¦.
Issue 32 (Vol. 16 No. 2), December 2006
Special issue: Tourism, gaming and destination image
SINGAPORE'S FORAY INTO CASINOS: A TRIADIC EXCHANGE RELATIONSHIP
SudhirH. Kale & Mark Spence
Issue 32 (Vol. 16, No. 2), December 2006, pp. 85-106.
Singapore is facing the challenge of having to reinvent itself as a tourist and convention destination. After decades of vociferous opposition to land-based casinos, the government has decided to allow two integrated resorts and casinos on Singapore soil. This article looks at the triadic exchange relationship in the casino context: the government and the casino provider, the casino provider and the customer, and the government and the customer. Key facets of the exchange involve product repositioning and trust. Sands, the successful bidder for the casino license, had to reposition its product to win the license. From the customers¡¦ perspective, feelings of distrust and fear of persecution will have to be dealt with if Singapore wants to provide credible competition to other gaming destinations in Asia.
MACAO OR MACAU? A CASE OF TOURISM BRAND IMAGE CONFUSION AMONG TAIWAN TRAVELLERS?
Glenn Mccartney, Sanjay Nadkarni & William Gartner
Issue 32 (Vol. 16, No. 2), December 2006, pp. 107-135.
The competition to entice potential visitors to a destination or take a particular type of vacation is intense. It has been found that a key determinant on whether a traveller chooses to visit a destination or not is based on brand image perceptions. The issue of image perceptions becomes an increasingly difficult subject with Macao, with attempts to change its negative and entrenched image of being a sole gaming destination in order to widen its tourism segments, such as business tourism. The Macao Government¡¦s main tourism development strategies have been the liberalisation of the gaming industry, investment in heritage conservation and the use of a seamless array of yearly events in the hope of enhancing its regional and international reputation. Yet there are several tourism stakeholders in Macao each sending out their own particular messages and with the possibility of destination brand image confusion for Macao. This research examined the image perceptions of the Taiwan traveller of Macao and found that image perceptions still rested on Macao as a gambling city with adult entertainment as well as a transit city. They held low perceptions of Macao as a heritage city or place to have a meeting. These findings have serious implication for repositioning Macao¡¦s image in the development strategy of its tourism industry.
REDEFINING YOUNG LOW COST TRAVELLERS: STILL BACKPACKERS OR ARE THEY BUDGET TRAVELLERS?
Bruce Prideaux & Malcolm Cooper
Issue 32 (Vol. 16, No. 2), December 2006, pp. 137-151.
The image of backpacking has changed over recent decades. The original backpackers, members of the Baby Boomer generation, were not regarded by some commentators as legitimate tourists and were seen by elements of the tourism establishment as cheap, beer swilling, drug taking travellers who added little to destinations. Over the past decade however young budget travellers have emerged as a significant tourist market, and have begun to attract substantial investment both in specialist backpacker facilities and in marketing dollars at destinations. The use of the term backpacker as a self descriptive term however has weakened. To identify the implications of this change in attitude towards this travel subset¡¦s views of themselves as travellers a convenience survey of 312 backpackers was conducted in Cairns over the summer of 2004-2005. Findings of this research indicate that a significant shift has occurred in the in the image that young travellers have of themselves. If the term ¡¥backpacker¡¦ is outdated, what term can be used to replace it? Should marketers look for a different term? How similar are the activities desired by this group to those of the past? This paper examines these issues and finds that while the term ¡¥backpacker¡¦ still has currency, there is an emerging trend in low cost travel that requires a new as yet undefined label.
THE LEGALISATION OF CASINOS AND GAMING IN THAILAND: HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM PERSPECTIVES
Supatcharajit Jitpraphai, C. Michael Hall & Neil Carr
Issue 32 (Vol. 16, No. 2), December 2006, pp. 153-166.
The legalisation of casinos and gaming has been a significant tourism policy issue in Thailand since the mid-1990s as a result over concerns of social costs, economic leakage and the competitiveness of Thailand as a destination. However, opposition to legalisation, particularly on moral and ethical grounds has meant that legislative change that would allow legal casino development has not been forthcoming. Despite significant policy debate little voice has been given to the perspectives of the hospitality and tourism industry. The research presents the results of a survey of members of the Association of Thai Travel Agents and the Thai Hotel Association with respect to gambling and casino development and management in Thailand. The results suggest that although industry members are supportive of changes to legislation so as to allow legalisation of casinos that they are supportive of such measures more on the grounds of management of criminal activity and the social impacts of gambling than on the necessary economic benefits of casino development. Such perspectives may have considerable implications for the future policy debates surrounding casino development in Thailand as they highlight industry¡¦s awareness of broader concerns in Thai society.
'PUSH AND PULL' FACTORS INFLUENCING ARAB TRAVELLERS TO CHOOSE MALAYSIA AS THEIR CHOICE DESTINATION
Rohaizat Baharun & Ammar Ghalip
Issue 32 (Vol. 16, No. 2), December 2006, pp. 167-184.
The growth of the tourism industry has occurred in both industrialised and developing countries, and has been accompanied by an increasing number of ownership and contractual relationships between firms at the national and international level. The Malaysian tourism industry has been identified as a key driver in the growth of the services sector from 2001 to 2005. Tourism has taken second spot, after manufacturing, in bringing in foreign exchange for the country. Arab travellers chose to come to Malaysia in increasing numbers because they want to spend their holiday in exotic Muslim countries rather than face suspicion in Western countries gripped by fears of terrorism. This paper attempts to discover what are pulling or pushing factors that influence this trend. Descriptive research design is used and the data collection was mainly done through questionnaires. Findings showed that majorities came as holiday travellers. Further more the significant role of pull and push factors in this study shown the positive image of Malaysia as tourist destination. Study also found that there is no significant difference between genders on pull and push factors.