Issue 20 (Vol. 10 No. 2), July 2000
Sources of productivity change in banking in Macau
Rebelo, Joao & Mendes, Victor
Macau's development model and identity
Antonio, Nelson Santos
The assessment of overseas Filipino workers in Macau
Vong, Bibiana Mio Ngo
The role of underwriter on the underpricing of Hong Kong IPOs
Vong, Anna P.I.
Testing a total quality management outcome model
The relevance of network theory for developing organizational learning
Hong, Jacky F.L.
Business networks: A revisited
The nature of organizational citizenship behavior: A review
Dioko, Leonardo A.N.
Issue 22 (Vol. 11 No. 2), September 2001
STUDY ON CHAOS AND NONLINEAR DYNAMICS IN CHINESE STOCK MARKETS
PATRICK K. K. CHU
Issue 22 (Vol. 11 No. 2, pp. 5-28)
After the stock market crash of October 19, 1987, interest in nonlinear dynamics and chaotic dynamics, have increased in the field of financial analysis. The extent that the daily return data from the Shanghai Stock Exchange Index and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange Index exhibit nonlinearity and chaotic characteristics are investigated by employing various tests from chaos theory. The visual inspection techniques reveal that the underlying structures in the returns data are different from those in the random data and the existence of strange attractors. The BDS test provides evidence for nonlinearity. The estimated correlation dimensions provide evidence for deterministic chaotic behaviors.
THE ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING PROCESS: A REVIEW
Issue 22 (Vol. 11, No. 2) pp. 31-49
The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the organizational learning process to identify the key issues of the field and some problems for future research. It first examines the differences within the previous studies and the definitions of organizational learning. The paper then reviews the models of the organizational learning process in terms of levels and stages of learning, the balance between exploitation and exploration, types of knowledge, community-of-practice, political process, and dysfunctional learning cycles. Building on these arguments, implications for future research on organizational learning are presented.
CROSS-CULTURAL LEARNING ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL JOINT VENTURES
DAVID POLLARD and JACKY F.L. HONG
Issue 22 (Vol. 11 No. 2) pp. 53-78
During the 1990s, there was a remarkable increase of interest in learning in International Joint Ventures (IJVs). The work of Kogut (1988) and later Hamel (1991) - whose oft-cited paper has had a considerable impact on shaping the course of research in organisational learning - helped to form a primary focus on understanding and mastering the mechanisms and processes of knowledge acquisition in IJVs (Inkpen 1996, 1998).
IJVs are generally considered as effective mechanisms for organisations seeking to acquire new skills and competences or new markets, at the same time sharing strategic payoffs with other firms - in fact many firms specifically seek new knowledge as part of the IJV operation. The current IJV literature tends to emphasise the importance of initial conditions, while the evolution of ventures is given rather less attention (Doz, 1996). However, both initial and evolutionary aspects are important in considering IJV learning. Failure to achieve initial learning objectives, changes in the relative bargaining power and lack of trust between partner organisations are often identified as problems which may lead to the premature dissolution of IJVs.
The nature of IJVs is one of cross-border co-operation, yet one of the least-represented areas of research is that of cross-cultural effects on learning. This cross-cultural dimension is important because it affects the way people share information and learning. Furthermore, the transfer of tacit knowledge would be expected to encounter more difficulties than that of transferring explicit knowledge. Due to the hard-to-articulate nature of tacit knowledge, the transfer process involves the sharing not only of information, but also of its implied meanings, anecdotal experiences and examples, heuristics and metaphors.
Communication of these types of implicit data requires extensive involvement in human interactions such as dialogue, joint problem solving, experience-sharing, modelling, etc. Communications barriers and misunderstandings, occurring during different kinds of sharing processes, provide another kind of challenge to effective knowledge management in IJVs. There are similar cross-cultural implications for the sharing of knowledge through training and problems for expatriate staff in acquisition and transfer of knowledge within the venture. This paper explores cross-cultural aspects of learning in IJVs, utilising case study investigations, and draws out some initial issues that may inform both management thinking and future research.
COMMON BARRIERS AND RESOLUTIONS FOR IMPLEMENTING ISO 9000 STANDARDS: THE CASE OF MACAU
NELSON SANTOS ANTONIO and TIFFANY K.P. LAM
Issue 22 (Vol. 11 No. 2) pp. 81-94
An obvious negligence on barriers and their respective resolutions of the ISO 9000 implementation process has been found in the extant literature. The academic focus has been centered more on other ISO implementation aspects such as its costs and benefits (e.g. Douglas et al., 1999; Leung et al., 1999), its relationship with business performance (Simmons & White, 1999), and reasons to get ISO accreditation (Anderson et al., 1999). Taking the accredited firms in Macau as subjects, the study is aimed to fill this gap.
HOW CHINESE MANAGERS REALLY LEARN?
Issue 22 (Vol. 11 No. 2) pp. 97-110
This paper explains the rise of management education in China and discusses the early research in how Chinese managers learn. It describes different methods of management education with special reference to the experiential learning method. Subsequently, it explains the Confucian model on experiential learning and compares the learning styles of Chinese and British managers. It concludes with a discussion on the problems and suggested solutions in facilitating Chinese managers to learn.
In-depth interviews with the accredited firms revealed that lack of management commitment, staff resistance to change and need to handle large amount of paperwork were common barriers found in the early stage of quality implementation. Meanwhile, training, management encouragement and recognition, and their credibility were factors identified to be effective antidotes for indifferent attitudes and discouraging behaviors. At the same time, the installation of an IT system can solve the problem of heavy routine work and the creation of voluminous paperwork.
THE MAKING UP OF ONE TOURISM AND HOTEL MANAGEMENT SCHOOL
THE STORY OF IFT – INSTITUTE FOR TOURISM STUDIES, MACAU
Issue 22 (Vol. 11 No. 2) pp 113-121
Presented at the 50th PATA Annual Conference, 2001, the purpose of this paper is to share with those who believe that education is the backbone of any developed society the experience of building up a tourism and hotel management school in Macau. Different aspects including politics, industry, staff, students, financing are discussed in the paper.
MANAGING HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY OF MACAU
VONG TZE NGAI
Issue 22 (Vol. 11 No. 2) pp. 123-133
This paper examines the human resource development effort at Civil Aviation Authority of Macau. It identifies the human resource development challenges that the organisation is facing and the initiatives it adopts as a response to these challenges. In particular, it highlights the integration of the different HR functions as critical manoeuvre toward enhancing organisation human resource development.