QUALITY OF BOARD OF DIRECTORS, OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE AND LEVEL OF VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE OF LISTED COMPANIES IN THAILAND
Jakkravudhi Chobpichien, Hasnah Haron & Daing Nasir Ibrahim
Issue 33 (Vol. 17, No. 1), June 2007, pp. 3-39.
The study investigates whether board of directors (BOD) and ownership structure influence the voluntary disclosure index (VDI) of public listed companies in the Stock Exchange of Thailand. The findings suggest that VDI is influenced by the quality of BOD and the ownership structure of the firm. The higher the quality of BOD, the higher is the VDI. This relationship is moderated by the largest shareholder controlling ownership. In addition, this relationship appears to be weaker for companies with a high concentration compared to a low concentration of CEO controlling ownership. Finally, firm characteristics as control variables comprising size of company, auditor type, and earnings return are found to have a significant influence on VDI.
THE MOTIVATION OF NGO LEADERS IN MACAU
MARKET STRUCTURE AND PERFORMANCE IN MACAU BANKING
VALUES IN THE MARKETING OF NATIONAL PARKS IN CHINA: AN EXPLORATORY APPLICATION OF THE MEANS-END CHAIN THEORY
Catherine Sarlandie de La Robertie & Cheng Baifang
Issue 33 (Vol. 17, No. 1), June 2007, pp. 79-102.
The aim of this study is to draw out the principle values of Chinese visitors to national parks in China so as to improve the parks communication strategy to consumers.The literature clearly provides support and empirical evidence linking both culture and consumption: cultural values have been shown to be efficient, measurable sets of variables that are fewer, more centrally held and more closely relating to consumer behavior than demographic and psychographic measures.
The data was obtained from the method of means-end chains theory and the Yau¡¦s questionnaire of Chinese cultural values, which was distributed to a sample of 30 visitors to national parks in China. With the information obtained, and after the principal component analysis of the 67 chains collected, we found two principal chains that can explain national parks visitors¡¦ expectations. After combining the values obtained by the method of means-end chains with the cultural values founded in the questionnaire, we propose some values that can be used in communication to increase the number of visits to Chinese national parks.
STAKEHOLDERS' THEORY AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN CHINA
Nelson Santos Antonio
Issue 34 (Vol. 17, No. 2), December 2007, pp. 109-121.
This article summarizes the major features and different schools of thought surrounding concepts such as corporate governance, corporate social responsibility (CSR) and private-public partnership (PPP). Then, an account of the current situation of CSR development in mainland China is provided. The salient features of CSR in China such as the central government¡¦s initiative of developing the harmonious society and eventually the harmonious world are also discussed.
THE ETHICS OF TAX EVASION: A SURVEY OF MACAU OPINION
Robert W. McGee, Carlos Noronha & Michael Tyler
Issue 34 (Vol. 17, No. 2), December 2007, pp. 123-150.
The ethics of tax evasion has been discussed sporadically in the theological and philosophical literature for at least 500 years. Martin Crowe wrote a doctoral thesis that reviewed much of that literature in 1944. The debate revolved around about 15 issues. Over the centuries, three main views evolved on the topic. This paper begins with a review of the literature and identifies the main issues and summarizes the three main viewpoints that have emerged over the centuries. It then reports on the results of a survey of business and economics students in Macau who were asked their opinions on the ethics of tax evasion. The survey consisted of 15 statements, representing the three viewpoints that have emerged over the centuries. Participants were asked to signify the extent of their agreement with each statement by placing a number from 1 to 7 in the space provided. One hundred eighty-seven (187) usable responses were received. The data were then analyzed to determine which of the three viewpoints was dominant among the sample population. Male scores were also compared to female scores to determine if the responses differed by gender. Males were significantly more opposed to tax evasion than females for 3 of the 15 cases. Gender differences were insignificant for the other 12 cases.
AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON PUBLIC SERVICE VALUES IN MACAU
Zenon Arthur S. Udani & Javier Calero Udani
Issue 34 (Vol. 17, No. 2), December 2007, pp. 151-166.
This exploratory study looked into the values manifested by employees of the Macau Government Tourist Office, the Public Security Police and the Health Bureau. Employing the multiple case study method, data were collected through face-to-face interviews. Interviewees generally perceived an improvement in the quality of public service and an overall enhancement in the values of public servants. Good work attitudes, professionalism, effective spirit of service, genuine care and concern for clients, more open communication, and attentiveness to the needs of the general public were among the values cited as crucial in government service. The deliberate formation and development of values among public servants should be explored in the region. For this matter, HRD practitioners should look into the developmental needs of government agencies with the view of humanizing and enhancing the quality of public service.
A COMPARISON OF CASINO CREDIT ISSUES IN THE US, AUSTRALIA, SINGAPORE AND MACAU
Issue 34 (Vol. 17, No. 2), December 2007, pp. 167-176.
This paper aims at depicting the similarities and differences of casino credit systems in four countries and regions which have legalized gambling namely, the US (Nevada), Australia, Singapore and Macau. It will evaluate and analyze these casino credit systems and the unique regulations integrating with different historical backgrounds and the current situations in the four places. The suitability of the credit system depends on the current situation of a particular place, each of which has its own weaknesses. Therefore, different countries and regions should develop their own suitable credit systems and constantly improve them by learning from one other.
THE TWO OLDEST MATRICES OF WORLD DISCOVERIES: PORTUGUESE AND CHINESE HISTORICAL LINKAGE
Jorge Nascimento Rodrigues & Tessaleno Devezas
Issue 34 (Vol. 17, No. 2), December 2007, pp. 177-185.
Portuguese and Chinese histories have a profound historical linkage - the globalization path in its birth period.
During the 14th and 15th centuries the Portuguese and Chinese navigators and explorers shared a common portfolio of world vision: strategic intent, out-of-the box thinking, scientific commitment and power projection. Both revealed strategic intelligence, the most important ingredient of great power politics.
The Chinese stopped their oceanic projection just at the moment the Portuguese became the new maritime challenger. It was an opportunity window for the Portuguese to complete what the Chinese left unfinished. They filled the vacuum left by the Chinese. And accomplishing that mission, the Portuguese gave birth to globalization, as a new long historical step of the evolution of the world system.
Ironically, the Chinese came from the South China Sea to the Indian Ocean. The Portuguese did the reverse route - from the Atlantic to the ¡¥locked¡¦ Indian Ocean and afterwards to some regions of the Pacific.
Here we intend to formulate the hypothesis of the two Discoveries' Matrices, their similarities and differences. Research on these Matrices is very recent. More investigations are necessary. The Portuguese Discoveries Matrix was presented in our book, Portugal, Pioneer of Globalization, and the Chinese Matrix has been described in different papers and books of Chinese and foreign origins. Now we put the pieces together in a comprehensive manner.