Communicating with Diagrams: How Intuitive and Cross-Cultural Are Business Graphics?
Martin J. Eppler, Faculty of Communication Sciences, University of Lugano (USI), Switzerland
Jianxin Ge, Central University of Finance and Economics (CUFE), Beijing, P.R. China
Issue 35 (Vol. 18, No. 1), June 2008, pp. 3-22.
This article reports on the results of an intercultural card sorting experiment with 104 students in Beijing and Cambridge (UK) to identify similarities and differences in the interpretation of visual business communication formats by students. The results show that English and Chinese strategy students differ dramatically in terms of their similarity and grouping decisions of business diagrams. The results indicate that communicators who employ business graphics for their presentations should pay attention to their target groups and visual formats to avoid misinterpretation in different cultural regions. The article is a contribution to visual approaches to communication management and highlights their limitations and risks.

An Exploratory Investigation of Locally Constituted Challenges to Communication Management in Multinational Teams
Jakob Lauring, Aarhus School of Business, University of Aarhus, Denmark
Charlotte Jonasson, Demark
Issue 35 (Vol. 18, No. 1), June 2008, pp. 23-36.
It has been argued that multinational teams create a number of competitive advantages when used strategically. However, multinational teams are not always successful, and a number of studies indicate that communication between team members may be the main obstacle. The purpose of this article is to investigate communication problems in organizations consisting of multinational teams. It is argued that researchers should not only look for differences in national culture when analyzing barriers to the communication flow. Challenges to communication may also develop in the locally constituted organizational culture. This is illustrated by an ethnographic field study in a multinational department of a Danish organization.


Theoretical and Historical Framework Underlying the Qualstrategy Model
António Teixeira, UNIDE, ISCTE Business School, ISCTE, Lisboa, Portugal
Nelson António, UNIDE, ISCTE Business School, ISCTE, Lisboa, Portugal
Issue 35 (Vol. 18, No. 1), June 2008, pp. 37-50.
The authors have been studying the relationships between Quality and Strategic Management since the early 1990s. Their recent development of an integrated model, QualStrategy, was preceded by the analysis of both areas’ roots, in order to accomplish a sound solution resistant to erosion agents created by the continued evolution of environmental complexity and management thought. Beyond the presentation of QualStrategy itself the authors consider useful to share the results of this preparatory analysis which puts into perspective the relationships between quality management and strategic thought, as a form to devise a theoretically sound way to build a strategic framework within quality management playing the role of a management paradigm. The authors found that the paradigmatic perspective is widely accepted and is an adequate tool to support this type of analysis and that the mainstream linking these two subjects is the concept of learning organization, a common root derived from the pragmatic philosophical current, although, in each case, the direct influence comes from different authors, Clarence Lewis in the case of quality management and John Dewey in the case of strategy.

Key Considerations in Adopting Tourism as a Destination Development Strategy
Glenn McCartney, Faculty of International Tourism, Macau University of Science and Technology
Issue 35 (Vol. 18, No. 1), June 2008, pp. 51-61.
Destinations in their quest to harness the economic benefits of tourism as rapidly as possible may do so not being fully aware of or with disregard towards the potential negative impacts that can accompany such development, particularly on the local community and environment. This paper highlights key destination planning and management issues, particularly highlighting moot factors such as sustainable tourism, tourism stakeholder collaboration, destination carrying capacity, impacts of tourism, as well as discussion on major tourism development models of the Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC), Irridex and Visitor Impact Management (VIM). While some of the issues have been applied within the context of Macau, strategic planning and management for tourism development through the integration of these major tourism concepts in any destination will greatly assist in creating an optimum environment for the various tourism stakeholders, and in maintaining the destination’s continued attractiveness to visitors and qualify of life (QOL) for the local community.

Measuring the Quality of the Reference Services in Academic Libraries: A Malaysian Perspective
Wail Alhakimi, Faculty of Management and Human Resource Development, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
Zainab Khalifah, Faculty of Management and Human Resource Development, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia

Issue 35 (Vol. 18, No. 1), June 2008, pp. 63-67.
Nowadays, customer satisfaction and customer focus are critical to the competitiveness of organizations. Therefore any organization interested in delivering quality services must begin with a clear understanding of its customers. In a perfect world, expectations and perceptions for customers would be identical. In practice, these indicators are often separated by some distances. A modified SERVQUAL instrument was used in this study to measure the quality of the reference services provided by a Malaysian academic library. To assess the gap between the expectations and perceptions of the five dimensions of service quality, a questionnaire was developed, validated, and distributed through face-to-face survey with 105 international students. Reliability and validity of the survey questionnaire were confirmed and proved to be high. The findings reflect a statistically significant gap between the international students’ expectations and perceptions of the reference services. Reliability dimension was identified as the most important in evaluating reference services and responsiveness was the least important dimension. This paper concludes by discussing the difficulties facing the international students and implications for the service provider.

Internationalisation of Business Education: A Comparison of Eastern and Western Universities
Graham Elkin, Otago Business School, University of Otago, New Zealand
Andrew Templer, Odette School of Business, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada
Radha R. Sharma, Management Development Institute, India
Jianqiao Liao, School of Management, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

Issue 36 (Vol. 18, No. 2), June 2008, pp. 85-101.
Internationalisation has become a strategic focus for many universities worldwide, however there are differing explanations as to what internationalisation actually means. In order to try to define the phenomenon and examine the effects of cultural background on internationalisation strategies we studied the internationalisation aspirations and achievements of a set of universities in a ‘Western’ cultural setting and a set in an ‘Eastern’ cultural setting. Data were gathered through a survey of 70 business schools in which respondents were asked to rate their school’s ideal and current level of performance in nine aspects of internationalisation. There were significant differences in the strategic aspirations of the two sets. These differences in aspirations led to differing internationalisation outcomes in which institutions typically performed better in those aspects of internationalisation upon which they were focused. Explanations for the differences between Western and Eastern universities are suggested in terms of economics and strategy, government action, supply and demand, perceived quality issues, academic career opportunity costs, professional accreditation and prevailing world view.

Organizational Culture and Innovation: An Exploratory Study of Sri Lankan Gift and Decorative-Ware Sector Firms
S.W.S.B. Dasanayaka, Department of Management of Technology, University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka
Guru Datt Sardana, Institute of Management Technology, Ghaziabad, India

Issue 36 (Vol. 18, No. 2), June 2008, pp. 103-112.
The prime objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of organizational culture on innovations in Sri Lankan gift and decorative-ware sector. This study begins with assessing dominant cultural types in characteristics of Clan, Adhocracy, Hierarchy and Market by using Cameron & Quinn’s Competing Values Framework among selected 45 Sri Lankan giftware firms. The study moreover, assesses innovativeness of the Sri Lankan giftware manufacturing sector and the types of innovations predominant among these firms. Furthermore, it investigates whether there is a significant correlation between scale of culture dimensions and degree of innovativeness. Finally, it identifies most dominant cultural dimensions that need to be strengthened in giftware manufacturing firms in Sri Lanka to enhance their innovativeness thereby making them more competitive in the global marketplace.

Employee Loyalty: Lessons from a Non-Gaming Multinational Company in Macau
Au Ieong Un Nam, Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau, Macau, China
Zenon Arthur S. Udani, Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau, Macau, China

Issue 36 (Vol. 18, No. 2), June 2008, pp. 123-132.
In a region with a burgeoning gaming industry, retaining employees in non-gaming companies could be a nightmare. Losing a few employees to high-paying casinos may be tolerable. But losing an entire service department could spell bankruptcy for a company.
Amid the ongoing commotion in the employment scene in Macau, some employees have found an oasis in their company and have decided to stay on. This study looks into the drivers of employee loyalty in a multinational company in Macau. From this case, the findings show that job security is a major factor in enhancing employee loyalty. When jobs are stable and secure, employees think hard before considering another job which promises a better pay, but the risk of losing it is higher. Affiliation is also an important emotional driver in keeping employees loyal to the company. Having a good superior and working in a harmonious workplace are influential factors in an employee’s decision to remain in the company. Lastly, attractive tangible rewards are a basic requirement in retaining loyal employees.

The Ethics of Tax Evasion: A Comparative Study of Guangzhou (Southern China) and Macau Opinions
Robert W. McGee, Andreas School of Management, Barry University, Miami Shores
Carlos Noronha, Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau, Macau, China
Issue 36 (Vol. 18, No. 2), June 2008, pp. 133-152.
The ethics of tax evasion has been discussed sporadically in the theological and philosophical literature for at least 500 years. Martin Crowe wrote a doctoral thesis that reviewed much of that literature in 1944. The debate revolved around about 15 issues. Over the centuries, three main views evolved on the topic. But the business ethics literature has paid scant attention to this issue, perhaps because of the belief that tax evasion is always unethical. This paper reports the results of a survey of students in Guangzhou, a city in Southern China, and Macau. The arguments that have been made over the centuries to justify tax evasion were ranked to determine which arguments are strongest and which are weakest. Male scores and female scores were not significantly different. However, Guangzhou and Macau scores were significantly different in five of 15 cases.

The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Leader-Member Exchange and Organizational Commitment
Jahanvash Karim, Institute d’Administration des Entreprises d’Aix-en-Provence, Clos Guiot Puyricard, France
Issue 36 (Vol. 18, No. 2), June 2008, pp. 153-171.
The purpose of this paper was to hypothesize the mediating impact of leader-member exchange (LMX) on the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and organizational commitment. A total of 98 participants voluntarily participated in the study. They represented four different organizations located in Balochistan province, Pakistan. Hypothesized relationships were examined using partial least squares (PLS) structural equation modeling. Results indicated that EI was positively related to LMX, which in turn was positively related to organizational commitment. In addition, the results indicated that LMX fully mediated the relationship between EI and organizational commitment.