Ethical Attitudes toward Taking a Bribe: A Study of Four European Countries


Teresa Hernandez, Florida International University, USA

Robert W. McGee, School of Business and Economics, Fayetteville State University, USA

Issue 41 (Vol.22, No. 1/2), December 2012, pp. 2-28


This study examined attitudes on the ethics of bribe taking in four European countries – France, Great Britain, Italy and Germany. Nineteen demographic variables(gender, age, marital status, etc.) were also examined, and most mean scores were found to be significantly different. Although most people thought taking a bribe   was unethical, there was some divergence of opinion. 




The Patterns of Japanese FDI in Australia after the Lehman Shock: Perspectives of the Eclectic Paradigm and Institutional Economics

Celal Bayari, Graduate School of Economics, Nagoya City University, Japan

Issue 41 (Vol.22, No. 1/2), December 2012, pp. 29-48


This paper discusses the post-‘Lehman Brothers shock’ period of the Japanese foreign direct investment in Australia, and provides an analysis of the types of investment.  The analysis begins with the theoretical frameworks that define multinational enterprise (MNE) activity, and foreign direct investment.  The way in which ‘institutional economics’ theory is utilised within the ‘eclectic paradigm’ is also analysed herein.  The ‘Lehman Brothers shock’, the ensuing market decline, and the subsequent investor indecisiveness have had effects on foreign direct investment in Asia, the EU, and North America (Devos & Giovanoli, 2011).  While this situation continued, one particular economic bilateralism, that of Japan and Australia, has remained largely unaffected.  The bilateral trade volumes and structure between the two remain unaltered in the aftermath of the ‘shock’.  This paper details the Japanese foreign direct investment patterns in Australia that were present before the ‘Lehman Brothers shock’, and continued afterwards (i.e. several-stage type of acquisitions).  From the time of the ‘shock’ until April 2010, there were numerous Japanese acquisitions in Australia (Wallace, 2010).  This process has been continuing, as of December 2011, with Japanese MNE Inpex’s A$30 billion foreign direct investment in LNG extraction and export project (AAP, 2011; AFP, 2011).  Nippon Paper Group’s 2009 foreign direct investment in Australia was the ninth biggest Japanese global acquisition in that year (JETRO, 2010), and Mitsubishi Corporation’s September 2008 foreign direct investment was the tenth largest (JETRO, 2009).  The post-crisis business environment has been beset by uncertainties, and the global mergers and acquisitions had recovered to merely one third of the 2007 levels by the end of 2010 (UNCTAD, 2011).  This has been the global trend, the context of the discussion herein.  As this paper discusses, the global trend, which UNCTAD describes, does not readily apply to the Japanese foreign direct investment in Australia. 



 Reflections from the Field: New Zealand Expatriates’ Experiences in Singapore

Jessica Smart, Department of Management, University of Otago, New Zealand

Graham Elkin, Department of Management, University of Otago, New Zealand

Virginia Cathro, Department of Management, University of Otago, New Zealand

Issue 41 (Vol.22, No. 1/2), December 2012, pp. 50-66


There is often a suggestion that preparation before and on arrival is connected to the failure or success of expatriate assignments (Enderwick & Hodgson, 1993, Ritchie, 2010; Selvarajah, 2009). The sparse, empirical research concerning New Zealand tends to be very general and lack context. We explore the current expatriation practices of New Zealand companies in the context of Singapore. After an initial literature review, face-to-face interviews and a survey we reflect the experience of expatriates. We confirm that the quality and quantity of prior preparation and on site training has a significant impact on expatriate success in Singapore.



Key Success Factors for Promoting Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) Technology in Sri Lankan Small Industry, a Case Study Based on Colombo Divisional Secretariat Area

Sarath Wimala Surendra Bandara Dasanayaka, Department of Management of Technology,

Faculty of Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka

Govini Thanthirige Don Methsiri Kumara, Dialog Axiata PLC, Sri Lanka

Guru Datt Sardana, BIMTECH Institute of Management Technology, Greater Noida, India

Issue 41 (Vol.22, No. 1/2), December 2012, pp. 67-100


The main purpose of this study is to identify the factors, which affect the applications of WiMAX telecom technology by small scale industries in Sri Lanka. The key   factors that influence the intentions of small industry to use the telecommunication services delivered via Wireless interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX)   technology have been identified through structured questionnaire surveys and interviews with telecom operators, regulator and small industries. The study shows that the need for voice service, high initial cost, quality of the installation and service delivered, the maintenance and ease of use significantly affect the small industries intention to adopt WiMAX technology. 



Exploring an Integral Framework on Continuing Professional Education

Zenon Arthur Siloran Udani, Department of Management & Marketing, Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau, Macau SAR, China

Delia Siloran Udani, PAREF Woodrose School, the Philippine

Issue 41 (Vol.22, No. 1/2), December 2012, pp. 101


Continuing professional education (CPE) focuses on both professional and personal development. Employees need technical expertise and ethical excellence to progress.  In this regard, professional associations serve as a channel for realizing CPE. These associations have the potential role of adding value to professionals through skill building activities and enhancing personal virtues through the ethical values they habitually transmit through various programs. This study proposes an integral framework on CPE for professional associations.  Through this framework, the study identifies association initiatives that contribute to value-adding and virtue-enhancing human resource development.